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TASHKENT







 
  Tashkent   Samarkand   Khiva   Bukhara   Termez  

 
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         


фото: CD “Welcome to Tashkent” © Patent Service
 
Coordinates of Tashkent are: latitude 41° 00" North, longitude 64° 00" East. Total area of its territory is 32,790 hectares. The city surrounded by fruit gardens, plantations and vineyards, is stretching on foothill valley with fertilize loess soils.

The highest point within the city boundaries is more than 550 m above the sea level.
The lowest point, less than 380 m is located on the bank of Chirchik River in Sergeli district of the city.
In the territory of Tashkent there are geothermal wells, which are used for treatment of various diseases.

CLIMATE
Sharp continental climate, which is common to Uzbekistan, is softened in Tashkent by proximity of mountain areas and numerous canals that cross the city. This land was always considered to be an area with wonderful water supply and healthy climate.

Average annual temperature of air in Tashkent is +14,2°C. In Tashkent the summer is hot and dry, average temperature in July is +27,6°C. Summer heat is rather easily endured due to low humidity of air.
Meteorological watch is established in Tashkent since 1877. During that period absolute maximum of summer temperatures was +44,6°C and it was fixed on July 18, 1997.
Winters are not very snowy; weather in unstable and thaws are often. Average temperature of January is +1,6°C. Snow cover is stable only in the mountains. The lowest temperature of -29,5°C was registered in Tashkent on December 20, 1930.

ARCHETECTURE
Medieval
This style was developed in XV-XVI centuries and it had all features of medieval construction works in Maverannakhr.
Features: as a rule, not very tall minarets-guldasta and modest decoration of facades of public buildings. In XIV century a special architectural school emerged in Uzbekistan, which was peculiar for its capacity to build brick cupolas. Special technical ways and methods of brickwork were secured in written sources of that time. Although these papers do not look like sketches that we are accustomed to using, with their help later generations could build up cupolas of their minarets, madrasah, and mausoleums.
Typical examples: Kukaldosh madrasah, Abu Bakr Kaffal mausoleum, Zainutdin-bobo mausoleum, Sheikhantaur complex.

"New" Tashkent style
The style was developed after republic gained its independence. It is used in construction of administrative, public buildings and offices.
Features: monumentality, wide use of modern finishing materials, dark glass, gilded details of facades, columns and cupolas.
Typical examples: Oliy Majlis , building of the City Khokimiyat (mayor’s office) , Museum of Temurids, State Music Conservatory.

ADMINISTRATION
Tashkent is a social, political and economic center of Uzbekistan. Central government, embassies, representative offices of international organizations and business companies are situated here.
City governance is performed by khokimiyat headed by khokim (mayor).
Khokim is appointed to this position and relieved of this post by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan and it should be approved by Tashkent City Council of public delegates.
The city is divided into districts and each district is governed by khokim of the district.

Traditional form of local self-governance – makhalla – is used in modern public administration. That is how a small residential area was called, where people had good neighbor relations and helped each other. Today makhallas are established on official basis as communities of people living on the same territory, both in private houses in residential areas and in multistory buildings.

WHAT TO SEE
In the capital of Uzbekistan there are no such picturesque monuments of ancient architecture as in Samarkand, Bukhara or Khiva. Tashkent became the main city of Turkestan only in 1867. Before that date it has never been a capital of the region throughout two thousand years of its history. That is why magnificent buildings that symbolized strength and power of Maverannakhr rulers were not erected here. Also, because of often earthquakes all erected buildings were destroyed.
However there are still many interesting sites in Tashkent. It is especially attractive that almost all preserved monuments of medieval architecture in the city are active religious centers. Having a look around them you gain an impression not only of history, but also of modern customs and traditions of people. Entrance is free everywhere, but while inside those monuments you are recommended to follow certain rules of conduct, as well as take a local person with you as a guide or interpreter.
 

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